Michael's Dispatches

Gobar Gas

2462 Comments

(Abridged version1)

Smart Moms raise smart kids

Brunei, Afghanistan, Nepal, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
Published: 08 June 2010

Michael Yon

A Gurkha Idea

Among the more interesting coalition forces fighting in Afghanistan are the legendary Nepalese Gurkhas. Trained and fielded by the British, as they have been since colonial days, Gurkhas are a fascinating admixture: today, they are elite soldiers used to traveling the world. But many of them grew up barefoot and poor in remote and primitive mountain villages in the high Himalayas—places that closely resemble parts of Afghanistan, geographically and culturally. Forefathers of some of today’s Ghurkas fought in the Afghan region during earlier wars. Gurkhas understand impoverished life in a harsh environment, though Nepal has enjoyed material progress in recent decades that is mostly unrealized in Afghanistan. Unlike forces from Europe or America, who often regard Afghanistan as an outpost of 13th Century life, Gurkhas can provide a link between primitive Afghan standards of development, and the possibilities for progress, with insights and connections that might elude most Westerners.

The insights of a Gurkha veteran named Lalit, whom I met in the jungles of Borneo, at a British Army man-tracking school, were particularly valuable. One day in the jungle Lalit began a conversation by announcing that many of Afghanistan's household needs could be solved if Afghans would adopt "Gobar Gas" production. Gobar Gas could improve the lives of Afghans as it had that of the Nepalese, he said, as he began to explain with great enthusiasm.

During Lalit’s time in Afghanistan, he found nobody who had heard of Gobar Gas—even though Gobar Gas has been a quiet engine of ground-level economic transformation in Nepal and numerous other poor Asian nations.

After the man-tracking course ended I returned to Afghanistan, this time to the desert-like areas of Ghor, Helmand and Kandahar provinces, where most people have no electricity and often spend hours daily scrounging for bits of wood or whatever other fuel they can find on the deforested plains. Lalit was right about two things: No Afghan I met had heard of the Gobar Gas – by any name. Nor had most American development people on the ground. Second, Gobar Gas looked like a serious solution in some areas to the lack of available fuel to meet daily needs. Given its track record and its perfect applicability to Afghanistan's state of development, this was a match made in heaven. I flew back to Nepal to talk with Gobar Gas experts and users. (A full explanation follows shortly.)

Himalayan Range in Nepal

Kathmandu, Nepal

Physically, Nepal and Afghanistan share similarities. Both contain great mountains and are difficult to navigate due to lack of roads, while existing roads are frequently impassable. The mountains and weather can be brutal. This is compounded by lack of electricity, transportation, communications technology and just about anything else associated with modern societies. Both countries have been saddled with weak and corrupt governments, universally mistrusted. They each have about 30 million people—80% of whom are subsistence farmers—living in small villages. The median age in both places is under 20, suggesting future crises. Half of the Nepalese are literate; perhaps a third of Afghan men can read, now, in the opening decades of the 21st century.

The desires, complaints and problems in both places often run parallel. Sizable populations are isolated for months each year by snow, rain and landslides—or just lack of bridges. Government influence in both countries mostly ends where the paved roads end. (Though Nepal actually has a government of sorts, and not surprisingly, far more roads.) In the hinterlands, life remains primitive, and in some cases, quite literally, prehistoric, except that outsiders note their existence. Government edicts and ideas issued from Kabul or Kathmandu are unheard or ignored—the words might as well come from Timbuktu or the Moon.

Main road just outside Chaghcharan, capital city of Ghor Province, Afghanistan.  There was not a single meter of paved road in the entire province.

A remarkable difference in Nepal is that most ethnic and religious groups coexist reasonably well, and despite their recent civil war the Nepalese seem considerably less prone to warlordism, general violence, and especially violence directed toward outsiders. Even during peak wartimes I had no difficulties walking hundreds of miles through contested areas in Nepal. While Nepalese fought each other, all sides (other than occasional criminals) protected travelers. Travelers who want to visit Kathmandu and trek the Himalayas are the country’s good fortune. Though Nepal is one of the poorest, least developed countries on Earth—and despite rampant corruption and recent war—progress is perceptible.

Nepal is arguably a half-century ahead of Afghanistan in governance, education, press, and certainly in tourism. Nepalese old-timers say that in the 1950s and 60s, for instance, few boys, and almost no girls outside the ruling elite, went to school. There has been steady progress in the numbers of citizens educated in Nepal. A visitor will see school children in many districts, even deep in the mountains, wearing uniforms and often walking 5-10 miles to school, as our grandparents once did in America. Democracy was first tasted in Nepal in the 50s, but did not truly take hold until 1990s. The democracy is struggling and fragile, but trend lines are good. (Educated Nepalese could mount valid arguments contradicting my statement.)

Though Nepal remains poor and underdeveloped by Western standards, if Afghanistan were to reach Nepal’s level in a few decades, some might rightly consider that a great success. And so, for me, Nepal has become a sort of looking-glass for Afghanistan. It’s a good place to search for insight and ideas that might be applied in Afghanistan. The Gurkha idea for Gobar Gas in Afghanistan was a pearl from Nepal.

Dung

Dung balls in Afghanistan are pearls from Nepal.

“Gobar” is the Nepali word for cow dung. The “Gas” refers to biogas derived from the natural decay of dung, other waste products, and any biomass. In Nepal, villagers use buffalo, cow, human, and other waste products for biogas production. Pig and chicken dung are used in some places, as are raw kitchen wastes, including rotted vegetation.

Gobar is typically mixed with a roughly equal amount of water, and gravity-fed through a pipe into an airtight underground “digester,” where naturally occurring bacteria feast on the mixture. This anaerobic process produces small but precious amounts of gas. That gas can be fed directly into a heat source, such as a cooking stove, and used to fuel it.

Diagram of 'Gobar Gas' installation in Laos, where it's called 'Gaz Sivulphap.' In Cambodia 'Gobar Gas' is called 'Chiveak Ausman.'

The biogas is 50-70% methane by volume, similar to natural gas, and a convenient source of clean energy. The gas is easily collected and stored for lighting, cooking and other household uses. After bacteria digest the dung, the by-product is a rich organic fertilizer, sometimes called slurry, or bioslurry. That fertilizer is more effective than raw dung, with important benefits for hands-on farmers. For instance, it doesn’t smell bad, and almost all the pathogens and weed seeds have been destroyed. There is no downside. No waste. No poisonous residues or batteries. Few moving parts. Gobar Gas is an astonishingly elegant tap into “the circle of life” which environmentalists, economists, development people and humanitarians can all admire.

The Home Plant

Nepalese Gobar Gas: this installation begins at the blue outhouse.  Human waste feeds to the underground 'digester.'

Animal and raw kitchen waste is churned with water.

Both pipes meet underground in the digester.  Normally this place is filled with tons of excrement.  This digester was under construction.  One pipe stems from the mixer, the other from the outhouse.

 


 

This cutaway is a training plant in Cambodia.  The construction in every country is different due to local technical variance.  Gas accumulates in the 'collection dome' and is brought into the kitchen by the pipe at the apex.

Many sorts of digesters have been developed, including plastic bag and prefab fiberglass versions.  The basics are the same: Waste in, gas and slurry out.  Gas is collected from the vertical pipe at the top of the 'collection dome.'

BSP-Nepal

According to Saroj Rai, the Executive Director of the Biogas Sector Partnership (BSP-Nepal) in Kathmandu, which oversees the Biogas Support Programme (BSP), the idea came to Nepal in 1955 when Bertrand R. Saubolle constructed a plant, and demonstrated the technology. In 1975/76 the Nepalese government installed 199 individual plants, but biogas truly developed when the Dutch launched a large program in 1992.

Today, an average-sized home installation might cost US $530—big money in Nepal—but subsidy mechanisms and microfinance schemes have led to the installation of approximately 204,000 units in the last two decades. The BSP program estimates that, with subsidies, another 500,000 units should be built and installed.

It’s not just Nepal. Other poor Asian countries have climbed aboard the biogas train. Biogas has become so popular in Vietnam that many farmers have it installed on their own, without subsidy. Subsidies vary greatly from up to 50% in countries like Laos, to 13.5% in Vietnam. The size of the subsidy required to persuade farmers to install the equipment is a reflection of both the relative wealth of farmers, and the priority they place on having a reliable substitute for wood, charcoal, other fuels—and the value of the fertilizer. (More details on subsidies in the unabridged version of this dispatch.)

About thirty million of Gobar Gas units are currently believed to be operating in India and China.

Women, Children and Trees

These women and children in a village near Bhaktapur, Nepal, used to spend hours a day collecting wood.   Now the family has Gobar Gas.   The two girls are 12 and 13 years old.  They attend school and their English is good.

In Afghanistan and Nepal, poor women use wood-burning stoves to cook inside poorly ventilated homes, while their children crawl around the smoky, sooty rooms—a situation which leads to respiratory and eye problems. The homes are like smoke chambers in Nepal, and seem even worse in Afghanistan. Before coming to the biogas sector, Mr. Rai worked in photovoltaic. “Biogas has much greater socio-economic benefits,” said Mr. Rai in his Kathmandu office, “but biogas is not sexy like photovoltaic, which mostly helps men. Biogas mostly helps women—the men don’t really notice because they still get cooked food, so why would a man invest 25,000 rupees?” “ But men will invest in photovoltaic because they get the sexy solar panel,” he said. “Even women sometimes will opt for photovoltaic solar power because they don’t realize the headaches, coughing and eye problems come from cooking.”

Subarna Budhathoki, a 52-year-old mother of five, was lucky and spent only about four hours per day collecting wood in the jungle, then hours cooking over wood in a smoky house.  Now she uses that time to grow vegetables to sell in the market.  She was proud to say her son just went to Japan.

“Forget about the environmental benefits,” said Mr. Rai. “People don’t see the value in saving the trees. Unless they are very enlightened they are reluctant to try biogas. It’s about social marketing. These types of products are not easy. But once you install a Gobar Gas plant, the woman typically says, ‘Why didn’t you tell me about this twenty years ago!’ Once they experience the benefits they are overwhelmed and social marketing is very easy.”

“Some women spend more than twelve hours per day, six days per week collecting firewood,” he said, “and children who could be in school are out collecting wood.” Those are extremes, to be sure, but as a rule, women and children spend hours a day collecting fuel. Given a choice, Nepalese mothers prefer their children go to school rather than haul wood. During walks in the mountains, it’s common to see kids of maybe six or seven out collecting wood in little baskets.

A Nepalese woman makes us tea with her Gobar stove.  Efficient stove design is important to maximize the hours of cooking available.  A huge biogas industry has developed in China and Chinese biogas appliances are exported worldwide.

Success: the 18-year-old girl can go to school instead of fetching logs out of the jungle for cooking fuel.  Educated moms make educated kids.

School is a Luxury

This family has Gobar Gas but the mom, as farrier, was having a hard time getting the little girl shod.  The girl was no more helpful than a horse and she kept her eyes on me as if a giraffe had walked into the village.  At first she was shy, then before heading off to school started modeling for the camera.

Going to school in Nepal.  Their grandmother served us buffalo milk boiled over Gobar Gas.  The boy is already in college and the girl also is in school.

 


In Laos, 'Gobar Gas' is called 'Gaz Sivulphap.'  The program is not sparking as well in Laos because, for instance, they still have many trees.  Families don’t have to walk far or pay for wood, but they are gnawing through the supply.

Australian Andrew Williamson from the Dutch SNV, and Bounthavy Sengtakoun, his Laotian compatriot, examine a biogas lamp in Laos.  This house has electricity but biogas is cheaper.  A biogas lamp, similar to an LPG camping lantern, can cost anywhere from US$3 to US$15 depending on quality.

Cambodia: light in many homes is provided only by battery.  A small business that uses a generator charges the village batteries.  If a traveler needs a satphone or cell phone charged, they must only find one of these places and a local will charge your batteries while you have tea.  In some places, including Iraq, people charge cell phones on motorcycles.

In addition to the health advantages of biogas for women and children, the rest of nature also benefits. Birds, and other creatures dependent on trees, do better when trees remain standing. In Nepal a single household biogas plant can save about 2,500 kilograms of wood per year. Trees anchor topsoil and prevent erosion. In some places, the wood is simply gone.

The people of Bhatti, Nepal—a village whose business is making moonshine—said they had heard about Gobar Gas but never wanted it. Wood for cooking and making raksi (rice whiskey) was plentiful. But they burned through all the wood, destroying the local economy. LP, kerosene and other fuels are too expensive to use in making moonshine. So the entire village of nearly a hundred people began traveling—up to three days to and fro—to buy permission from other villages to pull wood from jungle areas. Even the men had to spend their time scratching for wood. Gobar Gas started flowing in Bhatti in November 2009.

Lizard Hole

Dung piles in Karbasha Qalat, Afghanistan

Ghor Province, Afghanistan is similar to dry parts of Nepal. In Ghor there is a village called Karbasha Qalat (Lizard Hole) populated by sheep, horses, a cow, dozens of people, and thousands of lizards.

Villagers dry the dung in the sun and collect it into big stacks, as people do in India, Nepal, and across parts of the Third World. Karbasha Qalat (KQ) is like a dry Galapagos with all those lizards basking in the sun atop rocks and dung. Unlike the islands, KQ is not at sea level, but over 8,000 feet.

In some places Afghans tell stories about today’s barren mountains having been blanketed by forests. If there ever were trees around KQ, they are gone. Any wild plants that can survive here must taste bitter to man and beast. There is no local wood. When the manure is burned, it chokes those nearby, and then it’s gone. If KQ had a biogas generator, tons of manure would make gas while yielding slurry, to fertilize the now barren land. And there wouldn’t be human and animal feces leaching around. The villagers in KQ had enough manure piled up to fuel a rocket with Gobar Gas.

Lizards atop dung cakes in Karbasha Qalat.

Ten kilos of dung yields roughly an hour of stove burning time, and one of those skinny cows produces about 12 kilos per day. KQ had a great herd of sheep—probably a couple hundred—kept in pens when not out feeding. Villagers scrape sheep dung from the pens, which they mixed with cow (I saw only one cow), mule and horse manure for cooking. A small stream runs through the village. Afghans will use greenhouses if taught; I’ve seen them in Helmand and Uruzgan, for instance. Slurry is used widely in greenhouses in Nepal.

An outside stove in KQ.  Many Afghans cook indoors.

The bioslurry from the digester is so effective for growing crops that in some countries, according to Mr. Rai, biogas is not an energy program but an agricultural initiative, while in Vietnam it has been adopted for sanitation and economic growth. The biogas and the great sanitation benefits are byproducts in one place and impetus in another. In Karbasha Qalat, with a few greenhouses using the bioslurry, the standard of life could dramatically improve. There are thousands of “Karbasha Qalats” in Afghanistan.

SNV: The Dutch Connection

The more one learns about biogas, the more one sees the Netherlands Development Organization (SNV) humming in the background. SNV started working on biogas in Nepal in 1989, further adapting the Chinese technology, and developing an effective market-based program model. The Dutch could not be accused of looking for short-term solutions or following the crowd. Fifteen years in, SNV decided their domestic biogas program model was ready to replicate elsewhere in Asia. They started a program in Vietnam in 2003, and the Asia Biogas Program targeting 1.1 million beneficiaries in Vietnam (second phase), Bangladesh, Cambodia and Lao PDR in 2005.

Kitchens in Laos are better ventilated than many in Nepal or Afghanistan.

Good for Business

Biogas brings national-level benefits to countries such as Nepal, helping to spur business, and has created employment for about 9,000 Nepalese. These include jobs for local masons, who are trained as biogas technicians. The real magic for rural development professionals: biogas programs create a new, sustainable profession even in depressed rural areas.

Today, the challenges for Mr. Rai revolve around nurturing a holistic business sector by simultaneously prodding supply—including the development of biogas appliances—and demand. BSP-Nepal, with 30 employees, has a presence in 75 districts. Challenges remain, especially in remote areas, but the program is growing steadily.

Another Nepalese family with Gobar Gas

Incredible Return on Investment

For a typical Nepalese family, installing a biogas facility, even with subsidies, is expensive. But people feel that the investment pays for itself in a short time. Some women reported that Gobar Gas installations completely returned the investment within a year to 18 months. SNV figures are more conservative, but even conservative SNV figures show a complete return on investment after about three years. SNV figures were in all cases more conservative than what users told me in Nepal, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

These rapid returns measure the financial cost against real financial gain, from new activities that are more likely to generate income, which take the place of the daily search for fuel to survive. For instance, in Nepal, Subarna Budhathoki said her Gobar Gas unit cost 35,000 Nepalese rupees after the subsidy, but she made 50,000 rupees the first year by selling vegetables. Subarna said, with a smile that hardly ended during the entire lengthy conversation, that she would have earned 200,000 rupees on tomatoes that year, but the tomatoes were victims of a hailstorm. Despite the hail setback, she cleared a real profit of 15,000 rupees in the first year.

Long Term Gains

It’s important to consider the less easily monetized yet real benefits from using Gobar Gas. Saving 2,500 kilograms of trees per family each year has long-term economic value, and it keeps the birds and squirrels happy. Improved health from better sanitation and the absence of constant wood smoke in the home has clear economic benefits, as does the ability to send children, freed from the labor of searching for fuel, to school. These items, and many others, don’t fit on a balance sheet, but they improve conditions for real, long-term economic and social development. Health and education are the foundations of human capital needed to sustain a wealthier, more advanced society.

In closing, Lalit the Gurkha soldier has created a chain reaction. After intensive research and talking with experts in various countries, Afghanistan is a clear candidate for Gobar Gas development. The wheels have started turning.

Thank you Lalit, and SNV.


1 This is an abridged version of a far more detailed dispatch that required months of intensive research in Afghanistan, Nepal, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, with a genesis in Borneo. Since I completed this research and matchmaking, SNV is seriously considering a biogas program in Afghanistan. Military force cannot win the war alone. Organizations like SNV, which raise the standard of living, can make significant contributions.


 

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  • This commment is unpublished.
    Erik · 8 years ago
    I remember seeing Gobar Gas set ups on farms in rural India back in 1983.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    AmericanJarhead · 8 years ago
    Michael, this is a very interesting story. Something so simple changes lives is such dramatic ways... Also, I think you have some of your best documentary images in this dispatch. Keep up the good work. -Cris (americanjarhead)
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Jeffrey Blue · 8 years ago
    wonderful report
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Steve Graves · 8 years ago
    Michael: Great article. I hope I am correct in deducing from the last couple of paragraphs that the Gobar Gas project might be getting a foothold in Afghanistan.

    My son (an engineer as well as an artillery officer) says he sees all kinds of possibilities if some of the villages in the river valleys could install some of these fuel producing systems.
    You know the Marines. . . they'll improvise and adapt if given the OK from the higherups.

    Headed over to the PayPal site to send you a few.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    1typhoon · 8 years ago
    Michael I recollect your briefly mentioning Gobar gas in one of your dispatches from some months ago. It is a brilliant solution to the social, economic, and environmental difficulties faced in rural Afghanistan (and perhaps other areas). Hopefully your dispatch will call more attention to this wonderful source of energy. As always your photographs are outstanding...
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Spc. Scott · 8 years ago
    Simple ideas can have such a huge effect. Great article Michael. This idea alone could help so many people in Afghanistan not to mention what it could do for many parts of the "civilized" world.

    Some farms here in upstate New York are putting in methane collection systems. To hear them talk about it, it sounds like some really new idea. Kinda funny really.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Hoss · 8 years ago
    Great report. Considering the hundreds of thousands of "experts" and billions of dollars spent on this kind of infrastructure development (w/o significant success), you report something that has common sense and practical value. Perhaps because we continue to look at all problems through Western rose-colored glasses ?

    Some of the high and mighty who allocate money to State, DoD and the NGOs need to read this. Airborne.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Hector Cervantes · 8 years ago
    Michael, this is a very interesting and educational piece. You did a terrific job explaining it. Maybe your story will catch some big government eyes and a Gobar Gas program will initiate.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    bendaco · 8 years ago
    Michael,
    love this story; thank you for your perseverance!
    Haiti has effectively deforested itself, I wonder if this is something for Haiti?
    I pray God will continue to protect you in your travels.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Dr. Kenneth Noisewat · 8 years ago
    I wonder if the earlier work in this area inspired Bartertown in _Mad Max: Beyond Thunderdome_?
  • This commment is unpublished.
    david · 8 years ago
    I seem to remember that this system was also used in the construction of Disney world down in Flordia. Though they acted like it as a big innovation then.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Eric H · 8 years ago
    Hi Michael, will you be making the unabridged version of the report available?

    Also, I love this line from the "Jobs" section of the SNV website:

    "Forget about the young volunteers that used to be posted by SNV in the distant past. SNV today solely works with highly specialised and experienced professionals, who are willing to make long-term commitments to this career choice."
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Tommy Barrios · 8 years ago
    It seems like Mike has more on the ball when it comes to ecology and environmentalism than most of the idiot talking heads and prevaricating pinhead politicians.
    Keep up the great works Michael.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Dak · 8 years ago
    Michael,

    You mention that this is, "...an abridged version of a far more detailed dispatch..."

    Could you post the longer one?

    ~Dak
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Arik · 8 years ago
    Hi Michael

    Is there any talk about using this idea in Afghanistan? Besides contacting my local representatives and politicians who I believe would be interested in this idea, what can we do to kick start it there? This could be huge.

    Thanks

    Arik
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Bill Smith · 8 years ago
    Wow. I'm thinking we ought to attach a hose to the top of the Capitol dome in Washington.
    • This commment is unpublished.
      Johanna Stephens · 5 years ago
      The Capitol dome is awash in the biogas! Think of the rich return in bioslurry.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    paul · 8 years ago
    So, instead of installing sewage systems that get clogged with rocks used to clean, and outhouses that need fuel driven trucks, the PRTs need to get this system going.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Ken R · 8 years ago
    Great idea! Even better, there is a large supply of potential fuel on many of the bases. Look at food scraps and other products that could be used in this. Look at the infamous "poo ponds" that are on the various bases and FOBs. Not only could this be used to help the community, but possibly to provided power and resources for the bases as well.

    A central point that could produce this gas for a village or town?

    Maybe set an example?!?

    Great article and pictures!! Keep up the good work!
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Papa Ray · 8 years ago
    Anyone that has composted much knows that it takes a little know how to get a good compost pile and to keep it "healthy". Or even if if your using a compost bin, the mix of what is put in and how often is very important and that the air supply plays an equally important part.

    The same is true of this technology. The PH of the mix determines the output. Too little manure or too much vegetable material upsets the PH and can/will delay or ruin the process.

    For additional info:

    Gobar Gas Methane Experiments in India (From The Mother Earth News)

    Great job Michael !

    We all need to pray that this can be developed in every country where it is needed.

    Papa Ray
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Papa Ray · 8 years ago
    Well, the link didn't take. Trying again.

    http://www.mothercow.org/oxen/gobar-gas-methane.html
  • This commment is unpublished.
    BSJ · 8 years ago
    Really! Where do I send the donation!?
  • This commment is unpublished.
    GL Rai-Zimmdar · 8 years ago
    Michael,

    I am but a Gurkha; poor, marginalized and voiceless. Thank you for speaking something on behalf of us.

    http://www.Celebrate-the-Gurkha.org
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Matthew Gonzalez · 8 years ago
    "In addition to the health advantages of biogas for women and children, the rest of nature also benefits. Birds, and other creatures dependent on trees, do better when trees remain standing. In Nepal a single household biogas plant can save about 2,500 kilograms of wood per year. Trees anchor topsoil and prevent erosion. In some places, the wood is simply gone."

    If you take a quick look at the border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic on Google Earth, there is literally a line where there are trees on one side, and none on the other. Right now, I am envisioning US troops going house to house and setting these things up. If the Amish can get a few hundred guys together to build a barn in a day, we can round up a company to build a house or village sized gobar gas unit. Taliban monopolies on cell phone tower coverage will have no bearing on the ISAF's Gobar Gas monopoly.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Janet · 8 years ago
    Excellent article. Very well researched, nicely written and very enlightening. Thank you for sharing this knowledge.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Jan D · 8 years ago
    Thank you for bringing the WORLD to us !!
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Brad · 8 years ago
    Now it is clear that your work is world-scale life-changing important. There is no substitute for your war reporting. And it turns out the most important part of that, seems like supporting the families in the way you speak to them with great focus and compassion. And now then you have put forward and facilitated a breakthrough in civilization in a large part of the world, in a simple, straightforward way. Well, don't quit, and BE CAREFUL. When it's all over, I wish you would set up an institute to develop, teach, and train, and assist, every kind of effort like this. And I wish people who are in charge of paying attention, would really pay attention.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Len Austin · 8 years ago
    Michael, we work closely with DTW (Development Technology Workshop) here in Cambodia, and they design and produce the biogas burners for the NGO's to give out. For information on the biogas burners, please check out this web page: http://www.dtw.org.kh/Templates/biogas.html

    Not cutting edge technology, but it fine bit of kit made locally and robust.

    If your ever in Cambodia, check out the GW Explosive Harvesting Program, your always welcomed. Our website is: http://goldenwesthf.org/home.php

    Stay safe,
    Len
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Tim · 8 years ago
    Michael,
    Excellent article
    !
    I'm a retired USAF SOF operator. Having worked on numerous civil affairs projects, I know you're right on target with the analysis in this article. Your posts are required reading for the joint service special ops ROTC group I'm advising. I know these future warriors and leaders will get the truth from you.

    Since retiring in 1997, I have helped form a sustainable agriculture group in upstate New York. We are VERY interested in implementing the gobar gas home units with our members. Could you please offer some tips on source info for manufacturers, suppliers, even plans from local Asian families.

    We're eagerly looking for more of your stories on the combat troops, the locals and the background info in OEF.
    Blessings!
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Chris Betros · 8 years ago
    http://www.motherearthnews.com/Renewable-Energy/1981-05-01/Sichuans-Home-Scale-Biogas-Digesters.aspx

    Golly, I thought that this technology had given away to something else.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Reggie · 8 years ago
    Seems like the US should put a couple of these in every village. Seems pretty economical rather than handing out cash.

    Can that slurry be used to build fertilizer bombs against our troops?
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Jim · 8 years ago
    This is not new technology and the Hadji's haven't figured it out after how many years? You're dealing with people who are still living in the 8th century who are too dumb, lazy, or incompetent to figure out much of anything. Don't waste your time.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Tom · 8 years ago
    ...if my HOA will allow this at my house.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    jic · 8 years ago
    The setup in that movie was actually pretty stupid, because they made it clear that the pigs were raised for no reason other than to provide dung for the biogas tanks (remember the character "Pig Killer", who got life for killing a pig?). It would be one thing if the pigs were being raised for food and leather and the biogas was just a useful byproduct; but if you're not doing that, why not just put whatever the pigs are being fed straight into the tanks?
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Jon L · 8 years ago
    Great post and beautiful photographs on a vital topic in modern discussions of energy and development. I was recently in Nepal working on Gober gas (biogas) development, and I would truly love to see the same gains made in Afghanistan. In fact, we have been examining the potential of using the same (low-tech) technology in the Negev desert in Israel to help Bedoins, but we always run up against a central problem: water availablity. In Nepal, buffalo dung must be mixed ~1:1 with fresh water for the appropriate breakdown to take place. Goat dung, the majority of "fuel" available in Afghanistan, would require even more water per unit mass dung. In Nepal, there is plenty of water, but can we say the same about Afghanistan? Note that recent work using animal urine has not supported urine as a viable replacement for water in the reactor. Personally, if the water issue can be worked out, I would love to work on these projects in Afghanistan myself!

    The next big hurdle is temperature. The microbes need temperatures consistently higher than 15 deg C to efficiently break down the raw dung (a yearly average of at least 25 deg is preferrable). In Nepal, biogass is generally feasible up to around 3000m altitude, and at higher latitudes the temperature differential brings this max altitude down. In the winter, gas production drops significantly. How many parts of rural Afghanistan are within the appropriate temperature ranges?

    Also, a minor point: while laboratory results show that methane yields of 70-80% are possible, the majority of working reactors do not reach this efficiency. Research in the Negev shows average methane values closer to 35-50% for goat dung (less efficient than cow dung), which is still good enough for cooking.

    Keep up the excellent work!

    Jon
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Michael Yon Author · 8 years ago
    Jon,

    Your points are very important. I did a lot of research on those same topics. Some places in Afghanistan are definitely in the right temperature range -- and there is plenty of water. (Some places.) For instance, Helmand, Kandahar, Nangahar and some other areas seem perfect.

    Will go into far more details in the unabridged version of the dispatch.

    Great to read that you are working on Gobar Gas. This is very important and it's just kind of humming along in the background.

    Michael
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Brian · 8 years ago
    This would be a great source of compost and energy for rural farming communities in the US and I see a great use for it in the poor, agriculturally based Mexican communities along the US/Mexico border. Ghobar Gas, not just for the 3rd world anymore.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    mmckay · 8 years ago
    I helped on a building project 4 yrs ago in Madagascar. The Malagasy people have cut down 97% of the rain forrest for cooking and making brick. The gov't was attempting to convert the populace to propane at that time, but the people are so poor they can't afford it (avg. $250/yr income). This seems like a possibility for them as well.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    O. OC. · 8 years ago
    Hello - just sent you a donation via PP (as "W.W.S.").

    I'm a farmer now based in Ireland; is there any way I can get either the plans ("Diagram of 'Gobar Gas' installation in Laos"), or one of the kits you showed in the photo, or even both? We've put up our own wind turbine that we sourced from China after much research, also will be installing micro-hydro. Have experience with P.V. out in the desert in the US. Also with Pure Plant Oil production on farm. So we like tinkering with stuff and getting our hands dirty - but all the same, I wouldn't mind getting my hands on one of the kits if I could. Would be a bonus too if we could support any group/company that subsidizes/helps fellow farmers elsewhere.

    Thanks for your time and information.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    jic · 8 years ago
    Jon L:

    I googled *urine biogas*, and the first hit (Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res. 41(1-2), 23-32, 2006) claims that using urine as a substitute for water actually increases biogas yields. I would appreciate your comments on this study.

    O. O'C.:

    Google *biogas plant design*. Somewhere near the top of the list should be the Nepal Biogas Plant Construction Manual.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    jic · 8 years ago
    Or, even better, just google *Nepal Biogas Plant Construction Manual*.
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    Bruce O. · 8 years ago
    What a great story and research job!
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    Lt. Col. Ron Hasman · 8 years ago
    I can remember Ambrose Keroualle promoting this very idea for Afghanistan and Pakistan at a NATO conference, back in 1998. Most of us thought it was a rather offbeat notion, but I can see now that a very small investment might've led to a vastly different environment in those areas. Strategic development often tends toward military solutions, when much subtler actions are more effective in neutralizing conflicts. This is an excellent example.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Ashley Keller · 8 years ago
    Michael, thank you so much for brining gomber gas to light! I am so interested in the possabilities of this alternative-fuel in Afghanistan (as a young army engineer officer ways to help Afghanistan/Iraq captivate me). Your thorough research in this article has inspired me to look into gomber gas iniative programs that bring this to remote areas.

    Thank you so much
  • This commment is unpublished.
    another Michael · 8 years ago
    that gobar gas is used not only in those 'impoverished" areas, but here, at home...what would the corporations built around supplying us with energy do?
    Mabbe we wouldn't even need to war in the 'stans' in order to provide us with the strategic lines to our power sources?

    imagine...
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Paula · 8 years ago
    Thanks for this link very interesting ..will see how we can adapt for Africa through [note from Webmaster hyperlink removed]
  • This commment is unpublished.
    jic · 8 years ago
    I think you'll find that systems like that are in use in America and Europe. I have personally visited a sewage treatment plant that uses biogas from the sludge digesters to reduce it's energy costs. But if you think that they could possibly eliminate or even significantly reduce our need for fossel fuels, you are mistaken. It's the same problem as for automotive biofuels: where do you get the biomass from?
  • This commment is unpublished.
    another Michael · 8 years ago
    If You, for a second think, that I am concerned about the cities or commuting or transportation, well, then You are not seeing what I am seeing. We are rapidly reversing back to the stone-age. Those models are dying a death of a hundred pricks every day. Of course You see them in Europe - we have invented them - on a massive scale, for our population centers. But they(cities), too, are a failed model. Failed, because we have imported parts in them not tolerable to the operation of the whole. Those cities and their inhabitants are not my concern.

    We need to DESTROY our dependency of the big social/governmental functions to survive. Our future lays in the destruction of our "own" governments, who are presently in the business and process of replacing us with more suitable subjects.

    And that - as they say - is that.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Alaska Paul · 8 years ago
    Great article on the gobar gas phenomenon. Cities have used anaerobic sludge digestion for years, and the methane produced has been utilized for a number of applications, for instance running engines for sewage pumping. However, the gobar gas producers are all pretty small and simple. In temperate or colder climates, the digesters will have to be insulated.

    I am a strong supporter of more decentralization in our infrastructure. It empowers people and produces a system that is more robust that can recover better if it takes a hit, whether natural or man-made.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Just a Thought.... · 8 years ago
    Michael,

    As ever a great in-depth report and full of lots of relevant detail, but perhaps just a bit too fanciful to suggest there maybe similarities in their developments......Nepal is not Muslim.
    Just a thought.......

    Also, there are already technologies available for exploiting poppy into bio-fuel...it's just that there is no need for it in Afghnistan!
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Tommy Barrios · 8 years ago
    Hi Michael your article convinced me to crank up some energy and bio-green domains I have been holding in reserve for just such an occasion as your article and the ironic confluence of the BP/TransOcean debacle.

    I have posited an article on Methane production and have linked back to this article on your great site. I hope you do not mind that I have used one of your photos from your article, complete with credits:-)

    Here is the link: http://homefueldepot.com/?p=26

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